LiPS (Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LiPS®) programme, previously called Auditory Discrimination in Depth® (ADD), is a phonics programme aimed at early readers in KS1 and struggling or dyslexic readers in KS2. It is designed to teach pupils the skills they need to decode words and to identify individual sounds and blends in words, so that they are able to become self-correcting in reading, spelling and speech. A strong emphasis is placed on pupils learning how to hear, see and feel the physical characteristics of language sounds, and how to use this knowledge to recognise representations of these sounds in written text.
LiPS is structured into five levels. The introductory level focuses on establishing the climate for learning. The second level emphasizes identifying and classifying speech sounds and helps pupils differentiate consonants and vowels. The third level focuses on tracking speech sounds in sequences and associating sounds and symbols with these sequences. The LiPS program uses concrete objects (mouth pictures and colored blocks) to help pupils track sounds. The next level of the LiPS program emphasizes sound-symbol associations. The final level provides the first experiences with integrating the auditory tracking skills and the sound-symbol associations.
The intervention is delivered by appropriately trained practitioners on a regular basis, either one-to-one or with small groups of pupils.
Online courses and workshops available
Computer-based resources may be used, and the provider also produces DVDs and reading materials which support the programme.
The Best Evidence Encyclopaedia (2009) rated LiPS as having limited evidence of effectiveness for struggling readers.
The What Works Clearinghouse (2008) found LiPS to have potentially positive effects on alphabetics but no discernible effects on comprehension.
The size of the study used was too small for the intervention rating to be changed.